5.6.2 Postaxial cervical backbone
PEFO 34561 will not maintain people article-axial prior cervical spinal vertebrae, so this malfunction generally is based on PEFO 33861, PEFO 34269, and you can PEFO 34833 (Profile 8e). The fresh new centra try anteroposteriorly quick; new anteroposterior period of the fresh new centrum is actually a couple-thirds the level. The diapophysis is to the dorsolateral body of the centrum while the parapophysis is found to your ventrolateral epidermis. In between you will find modestly in order to well-created non-pneumatic fossae. Ventrally, all of the centra enjoys really-setup keels. This new neural arc and you can lower back is actually dorsoventrally taller versus centrum; testing out-of PEFO 33861 and you may PEFO 34833 suggests that brand new neural lower back screens confident allometry in line with the fresh new centrum. The fresh new neural spine try posteriorly set and you can quite overhangs new centrum angelreturn benzeri uygulamalar. It is laterally compacted and you can anteroposteriorly thin, that have a very moderate expansion from the dorsal suggestion. The fresh new zygapophyses is actually founded 50°–55° regarding horizontal. The fresh new postzygapophysis and contains a properly-set-up epipophysis due to at least brand new 4th cervical vertebra (based on PEFO 34833). The existence of blog post-axial epipophyses is very important because character keeps a limited distribution within the archosaurs, and are usually just found in R. callenderi, saurischian dinosaurs, B. kupferzellensis, V. campi (age.grams., PEFO 33978), X. sapingensis (IVPP V6026), E. okeeffeae (AMNH FR 30587), and you will Hesperosuchus agilis (AMNH FR 6758; Langer & Benton, 2006 ; Nesbitt, 2011 ).
The new morphology of your own middle so you can posterior cervical backbone is comparable with the significantly more prior cervical vertebrae compared to trunk backbone inside they own light ventral keels and use up all your type of vertebral laminae; not, this new centrum is more equant with its size (Figure 8f). Furthermore, the new diapophysis can be obtained towards neural arch, the zygapophyses is proportionally larger than alot more anterior vertebrae, the brand new postzygapophyses lack epipophyses, and also the transverse expansion of dorsal margin of neural spine is better arranged. Ergo, new rear cervical vertebrae are transitional in the morphology between the anterior cervical and the mid-trunk vertebrae.
5.six.step three Trunk vertebrae
Proceeded this new pattern seen in the new cervical series, the first two trunk backbone (determined by new associated rib particular) are also transformation into the morphology (Shape 8g) involving the cervical backbone and the trunk area spinal vertebrae closer to the brand new sacrum. This new centra is anteroposteriorly more than dorsoventrally high, therefore the centrum confronts is amphicoelous. The rear centra lack ventral ridges into the midline (= ventral keels). The new prezygapophysis are oriented 31° off horizontal, while the newest postzygapophysis are situated merely 20° off lateral. The sensory back is much more extended anteroposteriorly compared to the new cervical vertebrae; this extension is a result of really-setup dorsoventral laminae for the anterior and you can rear corners of one’s neural back. The fresh new dorsal portion of the sensory spine is actually offered laterally for the an intensive “spine desk” having a flat dorsal facial skin, like aetosaurs (elizabeth.g.,D. spurensis, MNA V9300). Within the dorsal look at, this type of spine tables was heart-designed towards apex of cardiovascular system pointing posteriorly. The fresh new diapophysis and you will parapophysis is linked by a properly-developed paradiapophyseal lamina; which lamina is located in most other archosaurs (age.grams., Nesbitt, 2005b ), but it’s particularly high in these spinal vertebrae away from R. callenderi. New parapophysis is positioned for the neural arch, however it is not dorsal towards dorsalmost expansion of your centrum. The first a couple of trunk area spinal vertebrae has actually sparingly put up centroprezygapophyseal, centropostzygapophyseal, spinoprezygapophyseal, spinopostzygapophyseal, prezygodiapophyseal, postzygodiapophyseal, and intrapostzygapophyseal laminae identifying him or her regarding the cervical backbone (Wilson, 1999 ).
step one.25pared towards the first two trunk area backbone, the new parapophysis is much closer to new diapophysis; the new parapophysis is just anteromedial toward diapophysis and are usually connected because of the a tiny paradiapophyseal lamina. New centrozygapophyseal and you can spinozygapophyseal laminae commonly as the noticable regarding even more rear trunk spinal vertebrae, although the intrapostzygapophyseal lamina stays line of, and you will a intrina can be obtained. This new sensory spines is actually heart-shaped including the transitional backbone, but they are some a lot more anteroposteriorly elongate.